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§Of World Interest

Estimate of World Population is between 1 and 10 million people.

§Africa

§Modern Niger

Kiffians colonized the region between 10000 BCE and 8000 BCE ?

§Asia

§Japan

This period is Japan's "Neolithic period" and the "Incipient period" of the Jomon culture which lasted until about 8000 BCE.It is believed that the Jomon people were semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer-fishermen, lived mostly in pit dwellings arranged around central open spaces.

According to archaeological evidence, the Jomon people may have created the first known pottery vessels in the world, dated to the 11th millennium BC, as well as the earliest ground stone tools. The antiquity of this pottery was first identified after the Second World War, through radiocarbon dating methods. The pottery was dated to about 10,700 BCE (12,700 BP). However, some Japanese scholars also believe that pottery production technology was first invented on the mainland because of sites in what is now China and Russia that have produced pottery "which may be as old, if not older, than Fukui Cave pottery". The Jomon people were making clay figures and vessels decorated with patterns of a growing sophistication made by impressing the wet clay with braided or unbraided cord and sticks, the origin of the word Jomon. The cookware also had pointed bottoms.

Neolithic traits

The manufacture of pottery typically implies some form of sedentary life, since pottery is highly breakable and thus is useless to hunter-gatherers who are constantly on the move. Therefore, the Jomon were probably some of the earliest sedentary or at least semi-sedentary people in the world. They used chipped stone tools, ground stone tools, traps, and bows, and were probably semi-sedentary hunters-gatherers and skillful coastal and deep-water fishermen. They practised a rudimentary form of agriculture and lived in caves and later in groups of either temporary shallow pit dwellings or above-ground houses, leaving rich kitchen middens for modern anthropological study. Because of this, the earliest forms of farming are sometimes attributed to Japan (Ingpen & Wilkinson) in 10,000 BC, two thousand years before their widespread appearance in the Middle East. However, some archaeological evidence also suggests early experiments with agriculture in the hills and valleys of the Fertile Crescent in modern Syria, Jordan, Turkey and Iraq around 11,000 BC.

Climate

A period of climatic warming began about this time, gradually raising sea levels in the Pacific.

§Mediterranean

§Cyprus

The earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BCE, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BCE. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old.

§Fertile Crescent (Modern Middle East)

§Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution was the first agricultural revolution—the transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement (settlement is currently being questioned). Archaeological data indicate that various forms of domestication of plants and animals arose independently in at least 7-8 separate locales worldwide, with the earliest known developments taking place in the Middle East around 10,000 BC (BCE) or earlier.

However, the Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia it would transform the small, mobile and fairly egalitarian groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human history, into sedentary societies based in built-up villages and towns, which radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized cultivation and storage technologies (e.g. irrigation) that allowed extensive surplus production. These developments provided the basis for high population densities, complex labor diversification, trading economies, centralized administrations and political structures, hiearchical ideologies and depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g. property regimes and writing). The first full-blown manifestation of the entire Neolithic complex is seen in the Middle Eastern Sumerian cities (ca. 5,300 BC), whose emergence also inaugurates the end of the prehistoric Neolithic and the beginning of historical time.

The relationship of the above-mentioned Neolithic characteristics to the onset of agriculture, their sequence of emergence and empirical relation to each other at various Neolithic sites remains the subject of academic debate, and seems to vary from place to place, rather than being the outcome of universal laws of social evolution.

§Syria

Excavation of a site called Mureybet in the Ar-Raqqah Governorate in the north of Syria took place frantically between from 1964 up until 1976 when the flooding of Lake Assad caused the site to be covered underwater. The continuous occupation of between 10,200BCE and 8000BCE not only shows evidence of how life was in the region, but also how life changed between these dates. For example, there was a transition between constructions of buildings from round shaped to rectangular, and a transition of fauna hunting from the originally favoured gazelle to the latterly favoured equines and aurochs. It is also believed that animal domestication was another development during this period and that possibly a tangible means of record keeping most likely relating to stock developed and existed.

§India

-10,000: Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra's rising due east, a phenomenon occurring at this date (Dr. B.G. Siddharth of Birla Science Institute), indicating the earliest known dating of the sacred Veda.

-10,000: Vedic culture, the essence of humanity's eternal wisdom, Sanatana Dharma, lives in the Himalayas at end of Ice Age.

§North America

Early Ice Age Cro-magnon hunters migrated to the North American continent about 9,500 BCE. It is believed that they migrated across a land bridge extending between Siberia and Alaska.

In North America, the Dire Wolf, Smilodon, Cave Lion, Giant beaver, Ground sloth, Mammoth, American Mastodon, American Camel, American Equine, and American lion all become extinct about this time.

§Pacific Region

Black Asians were the main inhabitants of India, Indochina, Indonesia, New Guinea, Melanesia, and perhaps even eastern China. They make the most primitive form of this race, later types being represented by Papuans or Melanesians.

§Sources

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