<< 999 CE | 991-1000 CE | >>

§Of World Interest

The estimated World population ranges between 254 and 345 million people.

§Africa

§Rwanda

The Hutu arrived in present-day Rwanda and Burundi, soon outnumbering the native Twa.

§Asia

§China

In what is today China, the Song Dynasty remained the world's most populous empire and continued to thrive under Emperor Xianping.

§Europe

The Viking Age continued in eastern and western Europe much as it had for the previous two centuries, with Viking trade, raids, and culture influencing much of European life.

§Eastern Europe

In Eastern Europe, the Byzantine Empire continued to thrive during amid its Golden Age in what is today primarily Greece and Turkey. Constantinople, with a population of about 300,000, dwarfed the Western cities of Rome and Paris, which at this time had populations of about 35,000 and 20,000, respectively.

§Hungary

August 20 - The foundation of the Hungarian state, Hungary is established as a Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.

§Western Europe

Western Europe began to cross over from the Early Middle Ages into the High Middle Ages beginning around 1000, as marked by numerous distinct changes in Western European life: the rise of the medieval communes, the reawakening of widespread city life, the appearance of the burgher class, the revival of long-distance trade that reconnected Europe with the Mediterranean world, the founding of the first universities, the rediscovery of Roman law, and the beginnings of vernacular literature, to name a few.

§England

In England around the year 1000, men were devouring 'love bread' (naked maidens romped in wheat, which was then harvested counterclockwise) as a cure for impotence.

§France

Speculation that the world would end in the year 1000 was confined largely to Christian monks in France, as most clerks at the time used regnal years--i.e. the fourth year of the reign of Robert II of France. The use of the modern "anno domini" system of dating was confined to the Venerable Bede and other chroniclers of universal history.

§Germany

Emperor Otto III made a pilgrimage from Rome to Aachen, stopping at Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno, Poland.

§Hungary

Stephen consolidated his rule by ousting other rival clan chiefs and confiscating their lands. Stephen then asked Pope Sylvester II to recognize him as king of Hungary. The pope agreed, and legend says Stephen was crowned on Christmas Day in the year 1000. The crowning legitimized Hungary as a Western kingdom independent of the Holy Roman and Byzantine empires. It also gave Stephen virtually absolute power, which he used to strengthen the Roman Catholic Church and Hungary. Stephen ordered the people to pay tithes and required every tenth village to construct a church and support a priest. Stephen donated land to support bishoprics and monasteries, required all persons except the clergy to marry, and barred marriages between Christians and pagans. Foreign monks worked as teachers and introduced Western agricultural methods. A Hungarian alphabet was derived from the Roman alphabet for the Hungarian language.

Stephen administered his kingdom through a system of counties, each governed by an ispan, or magistrate, appointed by the king. In Stephen's time, Magyar society had two classes: the freemen nobles and the unfree. The nobles were descended in the male line from the Magyars who had either migrated into the Carpathian Basin or had received their title of nobility from the king. Only nobles could hold office or present grievances to the king. They paid tithes and owed the crown military service but were exempt from taxes. The unfree--who had no political voice--were slaves, freed slaves, immigrants, or nobles stripped of their privileges. Most were serfs who paid taxes to the king and a part of each harvest to their lord for use of his land. The king had direct control of the unfree, thus checking the nobles' power.

Clan lands, crown lands, and former crown lands made up the realm. Clan lands belonged to nobles, who could will the lands to family members or the church; if a noble died without an heir, his land reverted to his clan. Crown lands consisted of Stephen's patrimony, lands seized from disloyal nobles, conquered lands, and unoccupied parts of the kingdom. Former crown lands were properties granted by the king to the church or to individuals.

§Italy

Otto III builds the basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola in Rome, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.

§Papal States

The papacy at this time remained firmly under the control of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III--the self-proclaimed "Emperor of the World".

§Poland

The Congress of Gniezno took place on March 11thth and is one of the more important events in Polish history, though scholars disagree over the details of the decisions made at the meeting, especially whether the Polish prince was pledged the king's crown or not.

After his death, Adalbert of Prague was soon made a saint by the common effort of Boleslaus I of Poland and Otto III, becoming the first saint of Slavic origins. His body, bought by Boleslaus I for its weight in gold, was put into the tomb in Gniezno, contemporary capital of the Polans of later Poland.

Otto III committed to a pilgrimage to St. Adalbert's tomb in Poland in his attempt to extend the influence of Christianity in Eastern Europe. As part of this policy, he also invested Saint-King Stephen the Great of Hungary with the king's crown. The Polans and Piasts Mieszko I had previously received the title and position as duke from the empire under margrave Gero and from the emperors Otto I and Otto II. While on the pilgrimage, Otto III invested Boleslaus I of Poland with the title Frater et Cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire") in 1000 A.D. On the same visit Otto III raised Gniezno to the rank of an archbishopric. Due this nomination Poland kept from the bishopric of Magdeburg province of the church, which helped her to keep semi-independence from the Holy Roman Empire through the Middle Ages. Eventually, Poland stayed outside the Holy Roman Empire, while e.g. Bohemia had become part of its countries in 950 AD.

Three new dioceses subordinate to Gniezno were created: in Kraków, Wrocław and Kołobrzeg. St. Adalbert's brother Radzim became the first archbishop of Gniezno. Otto III gave the Spear of St. Maurice to Boleslaus I and Boleslaus I presented the Emperor with a relic, an arm of St. Adalbert in exchange.

§Spain

Caliphate apogee Córdoba had a population of roughly 500,000 inhabitants

§North America

§Alaska

The Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture, a nomadic people who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 and spread eastwards across the Arctic, displacing the related Dorset culture (in Inuktitut, the Tuniit). Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as "giants", people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit, but who were easily scared off and retreated from the advancing Inuit. Researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked dogs, boats and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit society a large advantage over them.

§Canada

It was around this time that Leif Ericsson landed in what is today Newfoundland, naming it Vinland.

§Russia

In approximately 1000 AD, Swedish explorers, known as the "Rus" or "rowers," descended to a land of opportunity, then known as "Sweden the Great" and now known as Russia, and there established their dominance. They built their palaces, or "kremlins," and kept an envious eye fixed southward on the splendor of the Byzantine "capital of the world," Constantinople.

§Scandinavia

The Battle of Svolder was a naval battle fought somewhere in the western Baltic in September 999 or 1000 between King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway and an alliance of his enemies. The backdrop of the battle is the unification of Norway into a single state, long-standing Danish efforts to gain control of the country, and the spread of Christianity in Scandinavia.

King Olaf was sailing home after an expedition to Wendland (Pomerania), when he was ambushed by an alliance of Svein Forkbeard, King of Denmark, Olaf Eiríksson, King of Sweden, and Eirik Hákonarson, Jarl of Lade. Olaf had only 11 warships in the battle against a fleet of at least 70. His ships were cleared one by one, last of all the Long Serpent, which Jarl Eirik captured as Olaf threw himself into the sea. After the battle, Norway was ruled by the Jarls of Lade as a fief of Denmark and Sweden.

The most important historical sources on the battle, the kings' sagas, were written approximately two centuries after it took place. They cannot be taken at face value as historically accurate but offer an extended literary account describing the battle and the events leading up to it in vivid detail. The sagas ascribe the causes of the battle to Olaf Tryggvason's ill-fated marriage proposal to Sigrid the Haughty and his problematic marriage to Thyri, sister of Svein Forkbeard. As the battle starts Olaf is shown dismissing the Danish and Swedish fleets with ethnic insults and bravado while admitting that Eirik Hákonarson and his men are dangerous because "they are Norwegians like us". The best known episode in the battle is the breaking of Einarr Þambarskelfir's bow, which heralds Olaf's defeat.

Scandinavia Christianized.

Sweyn I established Danish control over part of Norway.

Oslo, Norway is founded. (The exact year is debatable, but the 1000 year anniversary was held in year 2000.)

§South America

§Bolivia

Tiwanaku disappeared around this time because food production, their main source of power, dried up. The land was not inhabited for many years after that. The decline began around 950 with a great drought.

§South Pacific

§Hawaiian Islands

Extinction of four species of the moa-nalo on the Hawaiian Island. The moa-nalo were large ducks and the island's major herbivores.

§Sources

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