On this date... (hide)
- Of World Interest
- Middle East
- Southeast Asia
§Of World Interest
Chaco Native Americans in New Mexico recorded an appearance of Halley's Comet in their petroglyphs. It was also mentioned in English Medieval Manuscripts
Ruler of the Hammadids - an-Nasir ibn Alnas (1062–1088)
The first black Africans in modern-day Gambia convert to Islam.
Ruler of the Wagadou (Ghana Empire) - Tunka Menin, Ghana of Wagadou Empire (1062–1076)
Ruler of the Ifriqiya (Zirid) - Tamim ibn al-Muizz (1062–1108)
Ruler of the Almoravids - Yusuf ibn Tashfin (1061–1106)
Ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate - Abū Tamīm Ma'add al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh, Caliph (1036–1094)
Ruler of the Byzantine Empire - Constantine X Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας), Byzantine Emperor (1059–1067)
(Northern Song Dynasty) - Emperor Yingzong of Song, Emperor of Song China (1063–1067)
- Monarch - Emperor Go-Reizei, emperor of Japan (1045–1068)
- Regent (Kampaku) - Fujiwara no Yorimichi, Kampaku (1020–1068); Sessho (1017–1020)
(Goryeo Dynasty) - Munjong, King of Goryeo (1046–1083)
Liao (Khitan Empire) -
- Khitan Empire renamed "Liao"
- Daozong, Emperor of Liao (1055–1101)
Seljuk Turks - Alp Arslan, Sultan of Great Seljuk (1063–1072)
Western Xia - Yizong, Emperor of Western Xia (1048–1067)
Apulia - Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia (1057–1085)
Sancho I Ramírez, King of Aragon (1063–1094)
Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona (1035–1076)
Halley's Comet was seen in England and thought to be a bad omen: later that year Harold II of England died at the Battle of Hastings. It is shown on the Bayeux Tapestry, and the accounts which have been preserved represent it as having then appeared to be four times the size of Venus, and to have shone with a light equal to a quarter of that of the Moon.
Whether the comet was a bad omen or not, the most famous Norman leader, Duke William II of Normandy, conquered England. The invading Normans and their descendants replaced the Anglo-Saxons as the ruling class of England. After an initial period of resentment and rebellion, the two populations largely intermarried and merged, combining languages and traditions. Illiterate like most nobles of his time, William spoke no English when he ascended the throne and failed to master it despite his efforts. Thanks to the Norman invasion, French was spoken in England’s courts for centuries and completely transformed the English language, infusing it with new words.
Edward the Confessor, King of England (1042–1066)
Harold II, King of England (1066)
Edgar Ætheling, King of England (1066)
William I, King of England (1066–1087)
September 20 - Battle of Fulford
September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge
September 28 - William of Normandy, also known as William the Conqueror, lands in England at Pevensey. The Norman-born duke’s subsequent ascent to the English throne ushered in a new era and forever transformed the country’s culture, language and identity.
October 14 - Battle of Hastings, fought between King Harold II of England and Duke William of Normandy.
The Norman invader William the Conqueror defeated and killed King Harold II on Senlac Hill near Hastings, England. William the Conqueror held that the former King, Edward the Confessor, had promised him the English throne in 1051. But on his deathbed, Edward changed his mind and tapped nobleman Harold Godwinson instead. William marshaled forces to dispute Harold's claim, defeated the newly minted king, and then went on to London, which surrendered to the Norman invader.
William’s jester was the first casualty of the Battle of Hastings, at which the Normans defeated the English army. As the story goes, the hapless entertainer rode beside William during the invasion, lifting his men’s spirits by singing about heroic deeds. When they reached enemy lines, he taunted the English by juggling his sword and was promptly killed, initiating the historic skirmish. Harold is allegedly killed by an arrow to the eye and William is victorious. There could be no doubting that William ranked as a truly deadly foe. His apprenticeship was long since over. Seasoned in all the arts of war and lordship, and with a reputation fit to intimidate even the princes of Flanders and Anjou, even the King of France himself, his prime had turned out a fearsome one. So too had that of his duchy. Quite as greedy for land and spoils as any Viking sea king, the great lords of Normandy, men who had grown up by their duke's side and shared all his ambitions, had emerged as an elite of warriors superior, in both their discipline and training, to any in Christendom. ...
"[After defeating the England's King Harald at the Battle of Hastings], what was left of the English turned at last and fled into the gathering darkness, to be hunted throughout the night by William's exultant cavalry, and it was the reek of blood and emptied bowels, together with the moans and sobs of the wounded, that bore prime witness to the butchery. Come the morning, however, and daylight unveiled a spectacle of carnage so appalling that even the victors were moved to pity. 'Far and wide the earth was covered with the flower of the English nobility and youth, drenched in gore.'
December 25 - William of Normandy is crowned King of England.
Philip I, King of France (1060–1108)
- Angoulême - Fulk, Count of Angoulême (1048–1089)
- Anjou - Geoffrey III the Bearded, Count of Anjou (1060–1067)
- Aquitaine - William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine (1058–1086)
- Auvergne - Robert II, Count of Auvergne (1064–1096)
- Blois & Champagne - Theobald III(I), Count of Blois (1037–1089) Count of Champagne (1037–1089)
- Boulogne - Eustace II, Count of Boulogne (1049–1093)
- Brittany -
1. Conan II of Rennes, Duke of Brittany (1040–1066) 2. Hoel II of Cornouaille, Duke of Brittany (1066–1084)
- Burgundy - Robert I, Duke of Burgundy (1032–1076)
- Maine - Robert Curthose, Count of Maine (1063–1070)
- Normandy - William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy (1035–1087)
- Poitiers - William VI, Count of Poitiers (1058–1086)
- Toulouse - William IV, Count of Toulouse (1061–1094)
§Holy Roman Empire (Germany)
Keng Henry IV expelled the Crown Council Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment. Henry also adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had recently invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg.
June - Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055. In the same year, at the request of the Pope, he assembled an army to fight the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had already attacked the Normans. Therefore the expedition was halted.
Henry IV, King of the Romans (1056–1087), Holy Roman Emperor (1084–1105)
- Austria - Ernest, Margrave of Austria (1055–1075)
- Baden - Berthold I, Margrave of Baden (1061–1073)
- Barrois - Sophie of Bar, Countess of Bar (1033–1092)
- Bavaria - Otto II, Duke of Bavaria (1061–1070)
- Bohemia - Vratislaus II, Duke of Bohemia (1061–1092)
- Burgundy (county) - William I the Great, Count of Burgundy (1057–1087)
- Carinthia - Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia (1061–1077)
- Lower Lorraine - Godfrey III the Bearded, Duke of Lower Lorraine (1065–1069)
o West Friesland - Dirk V, Count of West Friesland (1061–1091)
- Upper Lorraine - Gerhard, Duke of Upper Lorraine (1048–1070)
- Palatinate - Hermann II, Count Palatine of Lotharingia (1061–1085) (between 1061–1064 in tutelage to Anno II, archbishop of Cologne)
- Provence -
o Guilhem Betrand I, Count of Provence (1051–1094) o Geoffroi II, Count of Provence (1063–1067?) o Bertrand II, Count of Provence (1063–1093)
- Savoy - Peter I, Count of Savoy (1060–1078)
- Saxony - Ordulf, Duke of Saxony (1059–1072)
- Swabia - Rudolf of Rheinfeld, Duke of Swabia (1057–1079)
- Utrecht - William I, Bishop of Utrecht (1054–1076)
Pope Alexander II entertained the embassy from William the Conqueror which had been sent to obtain his blessing for the Norman conquest of England. This he gave to them, gifting to them a papal ring, the Standard of St. Peter, and a papal edict to present to the English clergy saying that William was given the papal blessing for the bid for the throne. These favors were instrumental in the submission of the English church and people following the Battle of Hastings.
Solomon, King of Hungary (1063–1075)
Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland (1055–1086)
Iziaslav I, ruler of Kievan Rus' (1054–1078)
Alfonso VI the Brave, King of León (1065–1072)
Sancho IV, King of Navarre (1054–1076)
Bolesław II the Bold, Duke of Poland (1058–1079)
Nuno (II), Count of Portugal (1050–1071)
Malcolm III, King of Scotland (1058–1093)
Granada massacre, a Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier
Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.
Domenico I Contarini, Doge of Venice (1043–1071)
- Deheubarth - Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwin, Prince of Deheubarth (1063–1072)
- Gwent - Cadwgan ap Meurig & Caradog ap Gruffydd (1045–1074 & 1063–1081)
- Gwynedd - Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince of Gwynedd (1063–1075)
- Powys - Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys (1063–1075)
Seven years of famine in Egypt from 1064 to 1072
Magnus II is crowned King of Norway.
Harald Hardråde, King of Norway (1046–1066)
Magnus Haraldsson, King of Norway (1066–1069)
Stenkil, King of Sweden (1060–1066)
Eric VII Stenkilsson, King of Sweden (1066–1067)
Eric VIII the Pagan, King of Sweden (1066–1067)
§Khmer (modern Cambodia)
It was in either this year or next that Harshavarman III became king of Angkor and ruled until 1080 CE.
- Harold II of England died at the Battle of Hastings
- Tom Holland, The Forge of Christendom: The End of Days and the Epic Rise of the West, Doubleday, Copyright 2008 by Tom Holland, pp. 289, 316, 325, 327-8.