On this date... (hide)
Yaqob is defeated in battle and deposed by his cousin Susenyos, who then becomes Emperor of Ethiopia.
Rule of Andorra is passed jointly to the king of France and the Bishop of Urgell.
The Pont Neuf bridge over the Seine opened. This was the first major bridge to be built without houses or buildings lining the bridge, allowing for a view of the great city. This bridge, begun by Henri IV was built entirely of stone, rather than wood as many other bridges of the time. It was designed to win the hearts and minds of the people and it succeeded.
The Head of the Hospitaller Order, the Grand Master, was granted the status of Reichsfürst (Prince of the Empire, even though their territory was always south of the Empire).
April 25 - Battle of Gibraltar: Dutch fleet destroys Spanish fleet anchored in the Bay of Gibraltar (Battle of Gibraltar).
January 30 - Floods resulted in the drowning of an estimated 3,000 or more people, with houses and villages swept away, an estimated 200 square miles (518 km2) of farmland inundated and livestock destroyed, wrecking the local economy along the coasts of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary, in what was then the Kingdom of England.
The devastation was particularly severe on the Welsh side, extending from Laugharne in Carmarthenshire to above Chepstow in Monmouthshire. Cardiff was the most badly affected town. The coasts of Devon and the Somerset Levels as far inland as Glastonbury Tor, 14 miles (23 km) from the coast, were also affected. The sea wall at Burnham-on-Sea gave way, and the water flowed over the low lying levels and moors. Thirty villages in Somerset were affected, including Brean which was "swallowed up" and where seven out the nine houses were destroyed with 26 of the inhabitants dying. For ten days the Church of All Saints at Kingston Seymour, near Weston-super-Mare, was filled with water to a depth of 5 feet (1.5 m). A chiselled mark remains showing that the maximum height of the water was 8 metres above sea level.
June 8 - Newton Rebellion: 40-50 peasants killed by landowners Tresham family during protests against enclosure of common land in Newton, Northamptonshire, UK - culmination of Midlands Revolt.
The British national anthem, God Save the King, is first sung.
September - Flight of the Earls: Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, leave Ireland with ninety followers, never to return.
The Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (Evanjelické lýceum) is founded in Bratislava.
January 13 - Bank of Genoa fails after announcement of national bankruptcy in Spain.
Spain is effectively bankrupt.
Missionary Juan Fonte establishes the first Jesuit mission among the Tarahumara in the Sierra Madre Mountains of Northwest Mexico.
April 26 - English colonists make landfall at Cape Henry, Virginia, later moving up the James River to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the United States. Three days later they founded the first Anglican church in the colonies.
May 14 - Jamestown, Virginia, is settled as what would become the first permanent English colony in North America.
May 15 - Jamestown: Christopher Newport, Smith Percy, Archer, and others travel 6 days exploring along the James River up to the falls and Powhatan's village.
May 26 Jamestown: The president directs the fort to be strengthened and armed against the many attacks of the natives: "Hereupon the President was contented the Fort should be pallisadoed, the ordinance mounted, his men armed and exercised, for many were the assaults and Ambuscadoes of the Savages ..." [John Smith, Proceedings (Barbour 1964)]
200 armed Indians attack the Jamestown settlement, killing 1 and wounding 11.
May 28 - Jamestown: The Fort is pallisadoed: "we laboured, pallozadoing our fort" Gabriel Archer (Arber).
June 10 - Jamestown: John Smith is released from arrest and sworn in as member of the colony Council.
June 15: Jamestown: The triangular fort is completed and armed: "The fifteenth of June we had built and finished our Fort, which was triangle wise, having three Bulwarkes, at every corner, like a halfe Moone, and foure or five pieces of Artillerie mounted in them. We had made our selves sufficiently strong for these Savages. We had also sowne most of our Corne on two Mountaines." George Percy (Tyler 1952:19)
June 21 - Following the recent establishment of an Anglican church in Cape Henry, a new parish was established in Jamestown, Virginia.
June 27: Jamestown: The colony bears extreme toil in strengthening the fort [from John Smith, Proceedings (Barbour 1964:210)].
August 13 - Ship Gift of God of the Plymouth Company arrives at the mouth of the modern-day Kennebec River in Maine. English colonists establish a Fort St. George, also known as the Popham Colony. The settlement lasts little more than a year before residents return to England in the first ocean going ship built in the New World, a 30-ton pinnace, called The Virginia.
Mataoka--Pocahontas, aged about twelve, may have protected Smith, but not, as he wrote, by interceding when he was a captive and about to be executed in 1607. In fact, the 'execution' was probably a ritual staged by Wahunsenacawh, the head of the Powhatan alliance, to establish his authority over Smith by making him a member of the group; if Mataoka interceded, she was simply playing her assigned role in the ritual.
September 10: Jamestown: President Wingfield is deposed, and then Ratcliffe is elected.
December - Jamestown: In early December, John Smith is captured by Opechancanough.
§Of World Interest
Appearance of Halley's Comet as observed by Johannes Kepler in Prague. It reached its perihelion on October 27th and appeared again in 1682 CE.
- Michiel de Ruyter - Dutch Admiral