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§Of World Interest

American satirist and writer Mark Twain was born on November 30, 1835; exactly two weeks after Halley's comet's perihelion. In his biography, he said, "I came in with Halley's comet in 1835. It's coming again next year (1910), and I expect to go out with it. The Almighty has said no doubt, 'Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.' " Twain died on April 21, 1910, the day following the comet's subsequent perihelion.

§Europe

§Austria

March 2 - Ferdinand becomes Emperor of Austria.

§Belgium

May 5 - In Belgium a railway is opened between Brussels and Mechelen. It is the first railway in continental Europe (see Rail transport in Belgium).

§France

The French word for their language changes to français, from françois.

§Germany

December 7 - The first German railway opens between Nürnberg and Fürth, named "der Adler" (The Eagle)

§German Industry

October 3 - Staedtler Company was founded by J.S. Staedtler in Nuremburg, Germany.

Justus von Leibig invented a process for silvering that greatly improved the utility of mirrors.

§Great Britain

April 18 - Lord Melbourne succeeds Sir Robert Peel as British Prime Minister.

One goose that was celebrated during this period was ‘Old Tom’ a gander which escaped execution at London’s Leadenhall Meat Market, even though 34,000 geese were reportedly slaughtered there in two days. ‘Old Tom’ became a great favourite at Leadenhall and lived out his days being fed by the local inns. When he died in 1835 at the age of 38, he was laid in state and buried in the marketplace.

§North America

§Mexico

Antonio López de Santa Anna President of Mexico

  • 24 April 1834 – 27 January 1835

Miguel Barragán President of Mexico

  • January 28, 1835 – February 27, 1836

March 23 — The Mexican Academy of Language is established.

May 23 - The Mexican State of Aguascalientes is formed.

§Republic of Texas

October 2 - Texas Revolution - Battle of Gonzales: Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.

December 9 - The Army of the Republic of Texas captures San Antonio.

December 20 - The Texas Declaration of Independence is first signed at Goliad, Texas.

§United States

January 30 - An assassination is attempted against President Andrew Jackson in the United States Capitol (the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States).

March - The first authenticated eyewitness report of a volcanic eruption by Mount St. Helens was made by Meredith Gairdner, while working for the Hudson's Bay Company stationed at Fort Vancouver.

August 25 - In the U.S., the New York Sun prints issue 1 of 6 for the Great Moon Hoax.

Fort Cass, established in 1835, was an important site during the Cherokee removal known as the Trail of Tears. Located on the Hiwassee River near present-day Charleston, Tennessee, it housed a garrison of United States troops and watched over the largest concentration of internment camps where Cherokee were kept during the summer of 1838 before starting the main trek west to Indian Territory. The camps stretched for many miles through the valley south of Fort Cass toward present-day Cleveland, Tennessee.

The Cherokee population had been spread over a region that included southeast Tennessee, southwest North Carolina, northern Georgia, and northeast Alabama. The first stage of the removal process was to gather the Cherokee into a few fortified encampments or "emigration depots", the largest of which was Fort Cass. Other depots were located at Ross's Landing (Chattanooga, Tennessee) and Fort Payne, Alabama. Fort Butler served as the military headquarters in North Carolina.

Before the removal began, from 1819 to 1838, Fort Cass was the site of the U.S. federal agency to the Cherokee Nation, known simply as the "Cherokee Agency", a kind of embassy. The Cherokee had ceded lands north of the Hiwassee River in 1819, at which time an earlier federal agency was moved to the future site of Fort Cass and Charleston, on the south bank of the Hiwassee River in Cherokee territory. This Cherokee Agency was situated on the east side of present-day U.S. Highway 11, near the intersection with Walker Valley Road. No trace remains today.

The Indian Removal Act of 1830 began the process that culminated in the Trail of Tears eight to nine years later. In 1835 the United States Army built Fort Cass at the Cherokee Agency, at the suggestion of Emigration Superintendent B.F. Curry. It was named for the Secretary of War, Lewis Cass. The fort was intended, in part, to intimidate the Cherokee into agreeing to move west (Duncan 2003: 275).

Even after the 1835 Treaty of New Echota it was clear that most of the Cherokee would not willingly leave their lands. In 1838, Brigadier General Winfield Scott assumed command of the "Army of the Cherokee Nation", headquartered at Fort Cass. He notified the Cherokee people to prepare and submit to forced deportation.

Military operations began in the Spring of 1838 in Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama. By July 25, 1838, over 4,800 Cherokee prisoners were encamped near Fort Cass, along nearby Mouse Creek, Chatata Creek, Chestuee Creek, Rattlesnake Springs, and Bedwell Springs. The initial plan was to not keep the Cherokee at Fort Cass for long and to travel by boats on the Tennessee River, but low water levels due to drought made this plan unfeasible. An overland march seemed inevitable, but was delayed because it would cause great hardship if conducted during the hot and dry summer months. The exodus was postponed until September. Therefore thousands of Cherokee spent several months living in the internment camps near Fort Cass.

Various diseases swept through Fort Cass during the summer of 1838, such as whooping cough and dysentery. There were frequently several deaths per day. Some Cherokee, like Choihetee of Hanging Dog, took their own lives (Duncan 2003:279).

Between the end of August and early December, 1838, the Cherokee from Fort Cass and other depots were organized into twelve groups and began the march west. The last Cherokee left Fort Cass on December 5, 1838.

Today nothing remains of Fort Cass or the internment camps.

September 22 - Edgar Allan Poe, aged 27, married his 13 year old first cousin, Virginia Eliza Clemm. A public ceremony was held May 16 1836.

December 16-17 - The Great Fire of New York destroys 530 buildings, including the New York Stock Exchange.

December 28 - The Second Seminole War breaks out.

December 29 - The Treaty of New Echota is signed between the United States Government and members of the Cherokee Tribe.

§U.S. Religion

Mormons

Michael H. Chandler arrived in Kirtland, Ohio. In his horse-drawn carriage he carried four Egyptian mummies. Along with the mummies were included displays of the papyri rolls found on the mummies themselves. Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, was fascinated by Chandler's exhibit, so much so that his fledgling church purchased the entire display from Chandler for a large sum of money: $2,400.00 Joseph Smith said:

"Soon after this, some of the Saints at Kirtland purchased the mummies and papyrus...and with W. W. Phelps and Oliver Cowdery as scribes, commeced the translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics, and much to our joy found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Joseph, of Egypt,.."

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

December 1 - Hans Christian Andersen publishes his first book of fairy tales.

§South America

§Brazil

September 20 - Farroupilha's Revolution begins in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

§Chile

January 7 - The HMS Beagle anchors off the Chonos Archipelago, on the voyage of 1831-1836 with Charles Darwin.

February 20 - Concepción, Chile is destroyed by an earthquake.

§Ecuador

September 7 - Charles Darwin arrives at the Galapagos Islands aboard the HMS Beagle.

§Uruguay

Civil war erupts in Uruguay between supporters of Blanco and Colorado parties.

§South Pacific

§Australia

June 8 - The Australian city of Melbourne is founded by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner.

§New Zealand

November 19 - A force of 500 Māori invade and enslave the peoples of the Chatham Islands.

§Sources

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