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§Of World Interest

The first libraries appear in Assyria, Egypt and China

§Africa

§Sudan

The Kingdom of Kerma – The capital of the Kingdom of Kerma is the ancient city of Kerma which today is an archaeological site in the north of modern day Sudan near the River Nile. Kerma is believed to have been occupied by humans as far back as 9,500 years ago in an area of which shows signs of human occupation that dates back even further. Kerma as a centre of the Kingdom began to take shape at around 3000 BCE, where a very real town existed with domesticated animal stock. The Kingdom was based between the first and fourth cataracts of the Nile in Upper Nubia, with its capital located specifically near the third cataract. The Kingdom rose in opposition to the Egyptian Old Kingdom around 2500 BCE and existed until around 1500 BCE when it was absorbed into what became the Egyptian New Kingdom. The remnant Kerma people did not integrate into the Egyptian Kingdom well and eventually rose up as the Kingdom of Kush during the 11th century BCE where they remained independent from Ancient Egypt. The people of Kerma kept domesticated bovine (cattle) and caprine (goat-antelope) animals, but also hunted, fished and foraged for food. They had wealth through metallurgy, especially gold and also with precious stones. They were skilled in the creation of ceramics, and they fortified their dwellings and had warriors, some skilled as archers to protect against raiders and invaders. They also had ceremonial burial practices which developed over the Kingdom’s thousand year existence.

§Asia

§China

The legendary Chinese sovereign of this time is known to be the son of Yellow Emperor and one of the Five Emperors, his name is unknown but he was a father of Gaoyang, the next Emperor who succeeded the throne. History simply refers to him as father of Gaoyang. He reigned until 2491 BCE.

§Japan

Middle Jomon The warming climate peaked in temperature during this era, causing a movement of communities into the mountain regions. This was the high point of the Jomon culture for increased population and handicraft production. Refuse heaps indicated that the people were sedentary for longer periods and lived in larger communities; they fished, hunted animals such as deer, bear, rabbit, and duck, and gathered nuts, berries, mushrooms, and parsley. Early attempts at plant cultivation may date to this period.

Ritual

Evidence of increased production of female figurines and phallic stone carvings, and the practice of burying the dead in shell mounds, suggest a rise in ritual practices.

§Mongolia

Domestication of the mung bean – The mung bean (Vigna radiate) is well known throughout central Asia and can trace much of its origins to modern day Indian, but one of the earliest finds of domestication can be traced back to Mongolia around 2500 years ago. The spread of cultivation is believed to have existed in Central, Eastern and South-eastern Asia in the earliest instances.

The mung bean in modern society is most commonly known as the beansprout that is used in Asian cuisine.

§Europe

The genetic lineage of Europe mysteriously transformed about 4,500 years ago in 2013, research suggests.

"What is intriguing is that the genetic markers of this first pan-European culture, which was clearly very successful, were then suddenly replaced around 4,500 years ago, and we don't know why," said study co-author Alan Cooper, of the University of Adelaide Australian Center for Ancient DNA, in a statement. "Something major happened, and the hunt is now on to find out what that was."

About 5,000 to 4,000 years ago, the genetic profile changes radically, suggesting that some mysterious event led to a huge turnover in the population that made up Europe.

The Bell Beaker culture, which emerged from the Iberian Peninsula around 2800 B.C., may have played a role in this genetic turnover. The culture, which may have been responsible for erecting some of the megaliths at Stonehenge, is named for its distinctive bell-shaped ceramics and its rich grave goods. The culture also played a role in the expansion of Celtic languages along the coast.

§Eastern Europe

Indo-Europeans expand from the Hungarian plain to Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, southern Poland and southern Germany and start the most important Central European Bronze Age culture : Unetice (or Aunjetitz).

§Western Europe

The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk; German: Glockenbecherkultur), ca. 2800 – 1900 BC, is the term for a widely scattered cultural phenomenon of prehistoric western Europe starting in the late Neolithic running into the early Bronze Age. The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on their distinctive pottery drinking vessels.

§Britain

It was about this time that burials stopped at Stonehenge and the large sarsen stones erected.

§France

The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudriere) stands in a field, near the airstrip at Nîmes (Provence). This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and must be considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.

A wave of people, farmers known as the Courronniens, arrived by sea and settled along the coast of what is now the Bouches-de-Rhone department.

§Ireland

The period in which Lough Ravel and most Ballybeg axes were produced, which is known as the Copper Age or Chalcolithic, commenced about 2500 BC. This period also saw the production of elaborate gold and bronze ornaments, weapons and tools. There was a movement away from the construction of communal megalithic tombs to the burial of the dead in small stone cists or simple pits, which could be situated in cemeteries or in circular earth or stone built burial mounds known respectively as barrows and cairns. As the period progressed inhumation burial gave way to cremation and by the Middle Bronze Age cremations were often placed beneath large burial urns.

§India

Main period of Indus-Sarasvati cities. Culture relies heavily on rice and cotton, as mentioned in Atharva Veda, which were first developed in India. Ninety percent of sites are along the Sarasvati, the region's agricultural bread basket. Mohenjo-daro is a large peripheral trading center. Rakhigari and Ganweriwala (not yet excavated in 1994) on the Sarasvati are as big as Mohenjo-daro. So is Dholarvira in Kutch. Indus-Sarasvati sites have been found as far south as Karnataka's Godavari River and north into Afghanistan on the Amu Darya River.

Reference to vernal equinox in Krittika (Pleiades or early Taurus) from Yajur and Atharva Veda hymns and Brahmanas. This corresponds to Harappan seals that show seven women (the Krittikas) tending a fire.

§Middle East

The domestication of camels begins around this time.

§Babylonia

Enmebaragesi (Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi, fl. ca. 2500 BC) was a king of Kish, according to the Sumerian king list. The list states that he subdued Elam, reigned 900 years, and was captured single-handedly by Dumuzid "the fisherman" of Kuara, predecessor of Gilgamesh.

He is the earliest ruler on the king list whose name is attested directly from archaeology. Two alabaster vase fragments inscribed with his name were found at Nippur where, according to the Sumerian Tummal Chronicle, he is said to have built the first temple.

This is a very rough dating since the successor, Aga of Kish, is listed in Wikipedia as being around in 2600 BCE.

§Iran

It is believed that Peli ruled about this time. The first mention of soap was on Sumerian clay tablets dating to this time - the soap was made of water, alkali and cassia oil.

Mature Harappan (Indus Valley Cilization), Harappan 3A (Nausharo II) 2600 - 2450 BCE Integration Era.

§Egypt

According to one chronology this is the last year of the reign of Pharaoh Shepseskaf. He is succeeded by Userkaf two years later in 2498 BCE.

Osiris is one of the oldest gods for whom records have been found; one of the oldest known attestations of his name is on the Palermo Stone of around 2500 BCE. He is the Lord of The Dead and was widely worshiped until the suppression of the Egyptian religion during the Christian era.

Princess Shert Nebti's burial site was discovered in 2012 and is surrounded by the tombs of four high officials from the Fifth Dynasty dating to around 2,500 BC in the Abu Sir complex near the famed step pyramid of Saqqara. Inscriptions on the four limestone pillars of the Princess' tomb indicate that she is the daughter of King Men Salbo of which presently nothing is known.

Egyptians began keeping geese for food and deliberately fattening them, a practice which spread from Egypt to the Mediterranean.

§Israel

Archaeological digs uncovered the remains of an ancient city at Kabri. The city was built around this time and its territory ranged over 32 hectares, which were surrounded by dirt embankments 7 meters high and 35 meters thick, on which were built guard towers

§Greenland

Greenland was first populated around this time. It is believed through mitochondrial DNA studies that the first immigrants to Greenland crossed from the Aleutian Islands, across what is now Alaska and Canada to finally settle in Greenland.

§Sources

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