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The Greek physician and philosopher Empedocles articulates the notion that the human body has four humors- blood, bile, black bile, and phlegm, a belief which dominates medical thinking for centuries.


Sitalko, was one of the great kings of the Thracian Odrysian state. He was the son of Teres, and on the sudden death of his father in 431 BCE Sitalko succeeded to the throne. Sitalko increased his kingdom by successful wars, and soon the Odrysian state of Thrace comprised the whole territory from Abdera in the south to the mouths of the Danube in the north, and from Black Sea in the east to the sources of the Struma in the west.

At the commencement of the Peloponnesian war he entered into alliance with the Athenians, and in 429 BCE he invaded Macedon (then ruled by Perdiccas II) with a vast army that included independent Thracian tribes (such as the Dii) and Paeonian tribes (Agrianes, Laeaeans), but was obliged to retire through failure of provisions, and was killed in 424 BCE by the Thracian Triballi.

Sitalko was succeeded to the Odrysian throne by Seuth I.


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