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The first expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece commenced under the leadership of his son-in-law and general, Mardonius. Darius sent Mardonius to succeed his satrap (governor) in Ionia, Artaphernes, with a special commission to attack Athens and Eretria.

This is a preliminary expedition to secure the land approaches to Greece re-conquered Thrace, and force Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia.

The Persians under Mardonius subdue Thrace and Macedonia. But, Mardonius lost many of his fleet in a storm off Mount Athos which forced him to abandon his plans to attack Athens and Eretria.


Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around this time king Aristophilides ruled over the city


When Camarina, a Syracusan colony, rebelled, Hippocrates, the tyrant of Gela, intervened to wage war against Syracuse. After defeating the Syracusan army at the Heloros River, he besieged the city. However, he is persuaded by the intervention of forces from the Greek mainland city of Corinth to retreat in exchange for the possession of Camarina.

§Persia (Iran)

Reign of Darius I.


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