<< 531 BCE | 539-530 BCE | >>

§World Weather

World temperatures were around normal while precipitation was moderately higher than normal.

§Europe

§Greece

Temple of Apollo at Delphi is begun.

Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, is made. It is now at Acropolis Museum, Athens.

Kroisos(?) Kuoros, from a cemetery at Anavysos, near Athens is made. It is now at National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

c. 530 BC — 525 BC — Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, is built.

c. 530 BC — 525 BC — Battle between the Gods and the Giants, fragments of the north frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, from the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, is made. It is now at Archaeological Museum, Delphi.

§Rome

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus is the king of Rome

§Middle East

§Babylon

On a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses II is called king of Babylon, although his authority seems to have been quite ephemeral; it was only in 530 BCE, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, that he associated Cambyses II on the throne, and numerous Babylonian tablets of this time are dated from the accession and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was "king of the countries" (i.e. of the world). After the death of his father, Cyrus the Great, in August 530 BCE, Cambyses II became sole king.

§Iran

Cyrus the Great did not venture into Egypt, as he died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in August. Cyrus was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to conquer Egypt during his short rule. (Some sources say that Cyrus died in the Spring of 528 BCE. Cyrus II is killed in war against obscure tribes.

Ctesias reports only that Cyrus met his death while warring against tribes north-east of the headwaters of the Tigris. In Herodotus' account, Cyrus met his fate in a fierce battle with the Massagetae, a tribe from the southern deserts of Kharesm and Kizilhoum in the southernmost portion of the steppe region, after ignoring advice from his advisor, Croesus, to not continue forward. The Massagetae were related to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living; they fought on horseback and on foot.

The queen of the Massagetae, Tomyris, who had assumed control after Cyrus had defeated Tomyris' son Spargapises, led the attack. The Persian forces suffered heavy casualties, including Cyrus himself. After the battle, Tomyris ordered the body of Cyrus to be found, and then dipped his head in blood (or ordered his head to put into a wine-skin filled with human blood) to avenge the death of her son at his hands.

Cyrus was buried in the city of Pasargadae, where his tomb remains today. Both Strabo and Arrian give descriptions of his tomb, based on eyewitness reports from the time of Alexander the Great's invasion. Though the city itself is now in ruins, the burial place of Cyrus the Great has remained largely intact; and the tomb has been partially restored to counter its natural deterioration over the years. According to Plutarch, his epitaph said,

    "O man, whoever you are and wherever you come from, 
     for I know you will come, I am Cyrus who won the 
     Persians their empire. Do not therefore grudge me 
     this little earth that covers my body."

Cuneiform evidence from Babylon (letters dated to regnal years) prove that Cyrus died in August 530 BCE, and that his son Cambyses II had become king. Cambysis ruled until 522 BCE His younger son, Smerdis, died before Cambyses left to invade the eastern front. From Herodotus' account, Cambyses killed his brother to avoid a rebellion in his absence. Cambyses continued his father's policy of expansion, and managed to capture Egypt for the Empire, but soon died, after only seven years of rule. An imposter named Gaumata, claiming to be Smerdis, became the sole ruler of Persia for seven months, until he was killed by Darius the Great, the grandson of Arsames, who ruled Persia before Cyrus' rise.

§Israel

Royal Arch Masons take this year as the epoch for dating their documents Anno Inventionis after the beginning of the Second Temple by Zerubbabel.

This is considered to be the eighth year of the Second Temple Period.

The Judeo-Christian book, Deuteronomy, composed about 625 BCE is written down about this time during the Babylonian captivity. It was expanded about 400 BCE.

§Sources

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