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Confucius turns 2.
Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto becomes the emperor of Japan until 511 BCE (presumed legendary).
§Lydia (Modern Turkey)
Croesus is the king. He is about 46 years old at this time.
Afghanistan was a part of the Achaemenid Empire.
Cyrus the Great established the Achaemenid Empire by defeating Astyages, king of Media and capturing Ecbatana, effectively conquering the Median Empire. While Cyrus the Great seems to have accepted the crown of Media, by 546 BCE, he officially assumed the title "King of Persia" instead. With Astyages out of power, all of his vassals (including many of Cyrus's relatives) were now under his command. His uncle Arsames, who had been the king of the city-state of Parsa under the Medes, therefore would have had to give up his throne. However, this transfer of power within the family seems to have been smooth, and it is likely that Arsames was still the nominal governor of Parsa, under Cyrus's authority—more of a Prince or a Grand Duke than a King. His son, Hystaspes, who was also Cyrus's second cousin, was then made satrap of Parthia and Phrygia. Cyrus the Great thus united the twin Achamenid kingdoms of Parsa and Anshan into Persia proper. Arsames would live to see his grandson become Darius the Great, Shahanshah of Persia, after the deaths of both of Cyrus's sons. Cyrus's conquest of Media was merely the start of his wars.
Nabonidus left Babylon to live at Tayma, a rich oasis city in Arabia, leaving his son Belshazzar behind to rule the empire in his stead.