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Africa

Lebanon

Suggested date for the beginning of the reign of Baal-Eser II over Tyre while under Babylonian control.

Eastern Europe

Lydia (Modern Turkey)

Croesus is the king. He is about 39 years old at this time.

Europe

Pisistratus is exiled from Athens to Euboea.

Middle East

There is a quick succession as King of Babylon as Labashi-Marduk succeeded Neriglissar. Labashi-Marduk, Chaldean king of Babylon, and son of Neriglissar. Labashi-Marduk succeeded his father when still only a boy, after the latter's four-year reign. Most likely due to his very young age, he was unfit to rule, and was murdered in a conspiracy only nine months after his inauguration.

Nabonidus succeeded Labashi-Marduk. Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who ruled the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 556 BCE to 539 BCE. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in his region.

Nabonidus, whose relationship with the previous Chaldean Kings of Babylon is unclear, came to the throne in 556 BCE by overthrowing the youthful king Labashi-Marduk. It is possible that he substantiated his claim to the throne by his marriage to Nitocris, who was the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer. In 549 BCE he left Babylon to live at Tayma, a rich oasis city in Arabia, leaving his son Belshazzar behind to rule the empire in his stead. It's believed he lived there for ten years.

In 539 BCE, according to the Hebrew Bible, while Belshazzar and the nobles of the empire were feasting and drinking from the chalices from the Hebrew Temple of Jerusalem, a hand wrote an unknown Aramaic text on the wall: mene, mene, tekel, parsin.

None of Belshazzar's soothsayers could translate the words written and then Daniel the Hebrew, known for his accurate prophecies was called to translate the text. He said unto the appointed "King of Babylon" : "This is the interpetation of each word. "Mene," "God has numbered your kingdom and brought it to an end. "Tekel," You have been weighed in the balances and are found wanting. "Peres," Your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians." These words indicated the arrival of the Persian king Cyrus the Great who rode out to conquer Babylon.

King Nabonidus returned to save his kingdom, but he came too late. The Persians took the city and the kingdom without resistance (they even got support from Gobryas, a local provincial governor) and King Cyrus was greeted as a liberator.

The fate of Nabonidus is uncertain. King Cyrus the Great was known for sparing the lives of the kings whom he had defeated, King Croesus of Lydia lived after his defeat at King Cyrus's court as an advisor. Most historians presume that Cyrus made an exception in Nabonidus's case, but some also believe that he was taken prisoner and died in captivity in 538 BCE.

Persia

Reign of Astayages over Media

Reign of Cyrus the Great, king of Ansham, ruling as a vassal of Media

Sources

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