Syria-Palestine was falling into the orbit of Pharaoh Necho II's Egypt
§Babylon (Mesopotamia, Iraq)
Nabopolassar is succeeded by his son Nebuchadnezzar. In 605 BC, Nabopolassar's son Nebuchadnezzar fought Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt and the remnants of the Assyrian army at the Battle of Carchemish. Within months of his abdication in 605 BCE, Nabopolassar died of natural causes at about 53 years of age, and Nedbuchanezzar II hurried to Babylon to secure the throne.
Nebuchadnezzar II is perhaps the best known ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned ca. 605 BC-562 BC. He is famous for his conquests of Judah and Jerusalem, his monumental building within his capital of Babylon, his role in the Book of Daniel, and his construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which as legend has it, he made for his wife because she was homesick for the mountain springs where she grew up.
He is traditionally called "Nebuchadnezzar the Great", but his destruction of temples in Jerusalem and the conquest of Judah caused his vilification in Judaic tradition and in the Bible, causing him to be interpreted very differently by western Christians and Jews than in contemporary Iraq, where he is glorified as a historic leader.
Nebuchadnezzar was the oldest son and successor of Nabopolassar, who delivered Babylon from its dependence on Assyria and laid Nineveh in ruins. According to Berossus, he married the daughter of Cyaxares, and thus the Median and Babylonian dynasties were united.
The Battle of Carchemish was fought between the Egyptian army and the Babylonian army. It was fought at Carchemish, located on the West bank of Euphrates River, about 60 km southeast of Gaziantep, Turkey and 100 km northeast of Aleppo, Syria. The site lies in Turkish territory near the frontier between the two countries.
The Egyptian army of Pharaoh Necho II was delayed at Megiddo by the forces of King Josiah of Judah. Josiah was killed and his army was defeated.
The Egyptians were further delayed, so that when they met the full might of the Babylonian army led by Nebuchadrezzar II at Carchemish, the combined Egyptian and Assyrian forces were soundly defeated. Assyria ceased to exist as an independent power, and Egypt retreated and was no longer a significant force in the Middle East. Syria and Phoenicia were brought under the sway of Babylon. Nabopolassar died on August 15, 605 BCE and Nebuchadnezzar quickly returned to Babylon to ascend to the throne.