A climate change affects all the Bronze Age cultures in Europe with colder and wetter climate, and tribes from the Scandinavian Nordic Bronze Age cultures are pushed downwards into the European continent. The evidence in the Netherlands pointing to the fact that the climate change was abrupt.
Fimbulvetr comes from Old Norse, meaning "awful, great winter". There have been several popular ideas about whether or not the particular piece of mythology has a connection to the climate change that occurred in the Nordic countries at the end of the Nordic Bronze Age from about 650 BC. Before that climate change, the Nordic countries were considerably warmer.
The Messenians, resentful of the Spartans' harsh rule, revolted. Beginning of the Second Messenian War.
Aristomenes traditional Messenian hero wins the battle at Stenyclerus against the Spartans but is eventually defeated.
The town of Abdera in Thrace is founded by colonists from Clazomenae.
650 BC–625 BC — Wine pitcher (oinochoe), from Rhodes, is made. It is now at Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
About 650 BCE, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians, who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. When the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. After a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council called the Kuretes. The city prospered again, producing a number of important historical figures, such as the iambic poet Callinus and the satirist Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus.
The Magadha empire rose with the Shishunaga dynasty in around 650 BC